The 3D shot (right) of Olympus Mons, the biggest volcano or mountain anywhere in the Solar System, shows the topography of Mars in unprecedented detail. There are amazing possibilities for this kind of information when it is combined with aerial views, such as the one to the below.
But why do we want to know loads about the altitudes of different bits of Mars? Well, it could actually play a pivotal role in the search for life, because by analyzing the altitudes of hills and surface features, scientists are able to tell where water has once flowed. It is thought that life could only ever have existed where water was present.
Another big question: how on Earth do you get 3D shots like this? The obvious first thought would be radar or lasers, which NASA has previously used on its Mars Global Surveyor mission. However, these only provide the height at the exact point under the probe.
To get detailed measurements over a wide area, Mars Express used a technique that involved taking three photos: one slightly before it was overhead Olympus Mons, one above it, and one slightly after it had flown over it. By combining these three different angles, scientists were able to construct a 3D image.
We’ve only just started our exploration of Mars; there are loads more probes set to explore the Red Planet before 2030, NASA’s target date for the First Man on Mars. It’s a pretty exciting time to be in for space exploration!